Environment and vector borne diseases

Haematophagous insects are important in terms of public health as they are remarkably adaptable to the environment and successfully coexist with man, feeding on him and his domesticated animals. Besides the colossal blood loss, some species are known to transmit many dreadful diseases like malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, Leishmaniasis etc. Millions of people in India suffer from vector borne diseases annually.

 

Reasons for persistence of vector borne diseases:

  • Unplanned urbanization has led to environmental related problems such as the inadequacy of sanitation, improper disposal of garbage and pollution of aquatic systems, leading to conditions suitable for proliferation of disease vectors
  • Spread of vectors into newer areas due to developmental projects such as industrialization, irrigation, railways, etc.
  • Deforestation leading to ecological imbalance, etc.,
  • Developing Early Warning System
  • Development of resistance in vectors to insecticides

Strategies for the control of vector borne diseases:

  • The impact of developmental projects on vector proliferation and disease incidence has to be assessed for a specific period.
  • Mapping of vectors (distribution and stratification) through Remote-sensing and GIS has to be done so as to identify risk zones, develop early warning system and generate decision-making tools.
  • Monitoring of vector resistance to insecticides should be carried out periodically from different geographical zones for planning suitable intervention measures.
  • Attempts should be made to use biocontrol/biodegradable agents in order to minimize environmental pollution.

Major Activities Envisaged

  • Creation of information date-base on Vectors
  • Development of a net-work between the ICMR and other Institutions
  • Generating Risk Maps
  • Preparation of Forecasting System / Model
  • Developing Decision Making Tools
  • Facilitates training on RS / GIS.
Last Updated on : 07/04/2014