Paper I: Anophelines and their medical importance – Malaria

Unit I: Mosquitoes: External structure; mouth parts; life cycle; Egg, larva, pupa and adult characteristics; Differentiation between anophelines and culicines; characteristic features of genus Anopheles, Culex, Aedes and Mansonia.

Breeding habitats; resting and feeding habits of adults; Gonotrophic cycle.

Unit II: Geographical distribution of malaria vectors and parasite species in India; life cycle of human malaria parasites – Factors affecting transmission.

Unit III: Epidemiology: Malaria ecosystems – urban, rural, forest, coastal malaria with reference to vector ecology

Survey: Methods of vector incrimination - Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques; Epidemiological (parasitological and entomological) indices - Endemicity classification - Entomological field and laboratory techniques.

Data collection, measures of mean, median, mode, variance and test of significance.

Unit IV: Surveillance – Conventional, immunological and molecular methods for detection of parasites and species identification in humans. Treatment: National drug policy - drug resistance and its detection by conventional and molecular techniques.

Unit V: Epidemics: Concepts and control/management. Principles of malaria eradication and control: Malaria Control in India – NMCP, NMEP, MPO, PfCP, UMS, RBM, EMCP, NVBDCP, Global Malaria Control Strategy. Transgenic mosquitoes.


Mosquitoes – External Structures (Anopheles)

  • Mounting and description of mouth parts

  • Mounting of wing to study the wing venation

  • Mounting of different types of hairs and scales of thorax and abdomen/head/wing

  • Mounting of palpi and calculating palpal index

  • Mounting of scutellum

  • Mounting of hind leg-characteristics of different segments

  • Mounting and description of male genitalia

  • Mounting of egg - egg characteristics

  • Mounting of larvae - description of hairs

  • Mounting of pupae – description of siphon, respiratory trumpet

Differentiation between Anopheles and Culex (a) Mounting and examination of palpi (b) Examination of scutellum (c) Mounting of spermatheca (d) Mounting and examination of wing

Malaria Problem

  • Map – 1. Distribution of malaria vectors in India

  • Map – 2. Distribution of malaria parasites in India


Vector Biology

  • Field survey for anopheline breeding habitats (a) Collection and rearing of larval samples (b) Measuring the immature density (c) Identification of larvae and emerged adults

  • Collection of indoor resting mosquitoes – density measurement

  • Collection of outdoor resting mosquitoes – density measurement

  • Collection of man landing mosquitoes – assessment of man-vector contact

  • Age determination

  • Estimation of gonotrophic cycle


Malaria Survey

  • Methods of vector incrimination (a) Conventional – dissection and staining of salivary glands/Midgut (b) Molecular and immunological techniques



  • Preparation of stains – JSB-I, JSB-II

  • Blood smear preparation and staining

  • Identification of malaria parasites-Plasmodium vivax, P. falciparum and P. malariae

  • Parasite counting and density grading

Last Updated on:18/09/2019